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30 November 20234 minute read

Kuwait’s strategic tax reforms: a difficult balancing act between global alignment and domestic priorities

Introduction to Kuwait’s Evolving Tax Framework

Kuwait is taking significant strides in modernizing its fiscal framework, aligning with global tax reforms. The country is contemplating the introduction of a Business Profits Tax, adherence to the OECD’s BEPS Pillar Two guidelines, and the implementation of an Excise Tax. These changes signal Kuwait’s commitment to international standards and a shift towards a more diversified economic structure.


Business Profits Tax Implementation

The proposed Business Profits Tax marks a major policy shift in Kuwait’s tax landscape. Aimed primarily at diversifying the economy away from its traditional reliance on oil revenues, this tax would apply to the profits of businesses operating within the country. The move is also seen as a step towards creating a more equitable tax system, where businesses contribute more significantly to the national revenue. The specifics of the tax rate, exemptions, and implementation timeline are yet to be finalized, but the proposal indicates Kuwait’s readiness to adopt a more standardized approach to corporate taxation.


Alignment with BEPS Pillar Two Rules

In conjunction with the Business Profits Tax, Kuwait is also considering aligning with the OECD’s BEPS Pillar Two rules. This global initiative aims to address tax base erosion and profit shifting by ensuring that multinational enterprises pay a minimum level of tax on their income. By adopting these rules, Kuwait intends to position itself as a compliant and responsible member of the global economic community. The implementation of Pillar Two rules would ensure that businesses operating in Kuwait are subject to a minimum global tax rate, reducing the incentive for profit shifting and aggressive tax planning.


Introduction of Excise Tax

Furthermore, Kuwait is exploring the introduction of an Excise Tax, which would be levied on specific goods considered harmful to health or the environment. This includes items like tobacco, soft and sweetened drinks, and luxury goods such as watches, jewelry and precious stones, as well as luxury cars and yachts. The introduction of an Excise Tax aligns with global health and environmental objectives and reflects Kuwait’s commitment to promoting public health and sustainable practices. The revenue generated from this tax would provide additional fiscal space for the government, supporting public services and infrastructure development.


VAT implementation

According to the latest reports, Kuwait has postponed the implementation of Value Added Tax (VAT) for at least three years, remaining one of the last GCC countries without a VAT system, along with Qatar. Instead, the country’s focus has shifted towards introducing an Excise Tax (see above). This strategic choice reflects a preference for a simpler, more targeted tax regime that directly addresses health and environmental concerns, potentially offering immediate revenue generation with less administrative complexity and broader public acceptability than VAT. Kuwait’s decision to prioritize Excise Tax over VAT aligns with its current economic and fiscal policy goals, emphasizing immediate impact and ease of implementation.


Joining the OECD’s Inclusive Framework on BEPS

Recently, Kuwait has taken a significant step by joining the OECD’s Inclusive Framework on BEPS. This membership underscores Kuwait’s commitment to international cooperation in tackling tax avoidance and harmonizing tax policies globally. Joining this framework demonstrates Kuwait’s readiness to adopt and implement internationally agreed standards, ensuring its tax policies are in line with global best practices.



Kuwait’s comprehensive tax reform plan, including the contemplation of a Business Profits Tax, alignment with the OECD’s BEPS Pillar Two rules, the proposed Excise Tax, and its recent joining of the OECD’s Inclusive Framework on BEPS, represent a holistic approach to revamping its tax system.

These proposed changes signify Kuwait’s proactive stance in embracing global tax reforms, fostering fiscal sustainability, and promoting a more diversified and resilient economy. As these plans progress, they will likely have far-reaching implications for businesses operating in Kuwait, requiring careful consideration and planning for tax compliance.

Kuwait’s apparent decision to delay the implementation of VAT and instead focus on Excise Tax is a notable deviation from the wider GCC trend. This approach underscores Kuwait’s prioritization of simpler, targeted fiscal measures that align with specific health and environmental goals, while also reflecting a strategic choice to ensure public acceptance and ease of administration in its tax reform journey.