Every jurisdiction processes litigation in different ways. The civil legal system in Thailand mandates a series of procedural steps that will likely be unfamiliar to those accustomed to the courtrooms of foreign common and even civil law jurisdictions.
Thailand's Courts of Justice comprise of a three-tiered Court system, which includes a series of Municipal, Provincial, Juvenile and Family, and Specialist Courts. Outside of the three-tiered system, the Administrative, Constitutional and Military Courts may hear related disputes.
The Civil Procedure Code specifies the applicable procedural law and relevant practice from pre-action conduct and the treatment of witnesses to closing statements and the receipt of judgments. It also sets out procedures for interim and substantive remedies and enforcement proceedings, including the enforcement of foreign judgments. Additionally, the Consumer Protection Act and Class Action law afford special protections to consumers while concurrently increasing businesses' potential liability.
This guide provides an overview of the litigation process in Thailand and aims to explain what litigants can expect from it.